Interesting crop breeding programs on hemp, hops and turfgrass were discussed in the 3rd session. With hops breeding, not only the physical characteristics of the plant is important, but also what taste it gives to the beer it is used in, thus breeding for taste is very important. In the 4th session, maize heirloom breeding was discussed where specific metabolic and nutritional properties are chosen over yield, for the use in the food industry, for instance, making tacos or popcorn in the speciality food industry. Quality protein popcorn is also a speciality trait bred for in Nebraska. Session 5 included presentations on big data and phenotyping and reiterated how important it is to link phenotype to genotype. In cases where it might be too difficult to have a big population of plants to assess, videogame software could be used to simulate synthetic images of plants. Session 6 was about understanding the interactions between crop plants and their microbiomes, looking at the genotype by genotype interactions. In this session, some of the speakers also talked about how varieties of hybrid maize as well as hybrid and inbred maize, differ in their rhizosphere composition and how this benefits the plant. Session 7 highlighted some breeding programs which are focused on biotic and abiotic stresses in crops. Heat stress is a very important abiotic stress which is observed more prevalently due to climate change. High-resolution 3D imaging technologies could be used successfully to assess phenotypic changes under different abiotic stresses for example looking at rice floret production under high heat conditions. Correlation between these images and yield will then be analysed and such data could be used successfully in breeding programs. The last session hosted lifelong successful plant breeders who shared some of the knowledge they acquired throughout their careers and gave us a bit of breeding history. Overall, I found this conference very informative and enriching. As a student from a biotech background, this conference taught me a lot about what is current in plant breeding and what trends will be followed in the future. I want to thank SAPBA for this opportunity.